Thứ Ba, 23 tháng 6, 2009

PRINCIPlES FOR GRAPHIC AND WEB DESIGN



Graphics and Web Design Based on Edward Tufte's
Principles

Graphics and Web Design Based on Edward
Tufte's Principles
This is an outline of Edward Tufte's pioneering work on the use of
graphics to display quantitative information. It mainly consists of
text and ideas taken from his three books on the subject along
with some additional material of my own. This page is in text only
format: in order to understand the concepts you need to read the
books because the concepts cannot really be grasped without the
illustrations, and current video monitor technology is too low in
resolution to do them justice. His work has been described as "a
visual Strunk and White" (here is a German translation of this
article).
Throughout this outline I have included references to the
illustrations in his books that are labeled with the abbreviations
VD-pp, VE-pp, and EI-pp, where "pp" is a page number and:
● VD is "the Visual Display of Quantitative Information"
● VE is "Visual Explanations"
● EI is "Envisioning Information"
Outline
1. #Introduction
2. #History of Plots
3. #The Explanatory Power of Graphics
4. #Basic Philosophy of Approach
5. #Graphical Integrity
6. #Data Densities
7. #Data Compression
8. #Multifunctioning Graphical Elements
9. #Maximize data-ink; minimize non-data ink
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Course Topics
Graphics Design
Based on Edward
Tufte's Principles
Setting up your First
Web Page
Acquiring Graphics
From the Web Itself
Graphics
from Scanners and
Digital Cameras
Graphics File Formats
and Graphic File
Conversion
Efficient Graphics
Colors, Backgrounds,
Transparencies
Creating and
Modifying Graphics
Using SoftwareHow to Do It
Graphics and Web Design Based on Edward Tufte's Principles

10. #Small Multiples
11. #Chartjunk
12. #Colors
13. #General Philosophy for Increasing Data Comprehension
14. #Techniques for Increasing Data Comprehension
15. #When NOT to Use Graphics
16. #Aesthetics

Introduction
Tufte's works address the following issues:
● The Problem: The problem is that of presenting large
amounts of information in a way that is compact, accurate,
adequate for the purpose, and easy to understand.
Specifically, to show cause and effect, to insure that the
proper comparisons are made, and to achieve the (valid)
goals that are desired.
● Its Importance: Printed and graphical information is now the
driving force behind all of our lives. It no longer is confined
to specialized workers in selected fields but impacts nearly
all people through the widespread use of computing and
the Internet. Rapid and accurate transfers of information
can be a life and death matter for many people (an example
being the Challenger disaster). The extent to which
symbols and graphics affect our lives can be seen by the
dramatic increase in IQ scores in all cultures which have
acquired information technology: in the United States there
has been an average increase of 3 IQ points per decade
over the last 60 years, for a total of an 18 IQ point increase.
There is no known biological explanation for this increase
and the most likely cause is widespread exposure to text,
symbols, and graphics that accompany modern life. As
mentioned above, this increase has been seen in all
cultures exposed to information technology.
● Its Application: Some of the information relates to the
displays of statistical information, but much applies to any
type of display, even plain text.
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and Web Design Based on Edward Tufte's Principles
● The Solution: To develop a consistent approach to the
display of graphics which enhances its dissemination,
accuracy, and ease of comprehension.
History of Plots
The very first known plot dates back to the 10-th century (VD-28:
first known graph). This was about the same time that Guido of
Arezzo was developing the two-dimensional musical staff notation
very similar to the one we use today. In the 15-th century Nicolas
of Cusa developed graphs of distance versus speed. In the 17th
century Rene Descartes established analytic geometry which was
used only for the display of mathematical functions. But the main
initiator for informative graphics was William Playfair (1759-1823)
who developed the line, bar, and pie charts as we know them
today.
The Explanatory Power of Graphics
The importance and explanatory power of graphics can be seen in
these examples:
● Illustration VD-13/14 shows 4 plots which have a large
number of absolutely identical statistical measures and
properties and yet are very different, as can be immediately
seen from their graphs.
● The Challenger disaster: the data graphs shown to NASA
did not convey the real information which was needed (VE-
47 versus VE-45). If NASA had seen the appropriate, but
very simple, graphics which showed the effects of low
temperature and damage to the solid rocket boosters, the
Challenger would not have been launched that (very cold)
day.
● The Broad Street Pump cholera epidemic in 1854 in
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Graphics and Web Design Based on Edward Tufte's Principles
London, as displayed by John Snow (VE-31: cholera
deaths). This graph showed clusters of cholera deaths
around the site of the pump.
● Illustration VD-166: "communes in France" shows an
extremely dense plot which displays the boundaries of
more than 30,000 communes in France.
Basic Philosophy of Approach
Important rules and themes to use when presenting graphics:
● Assume that the audience is intelligent (a paraphrase from
E.B. White). Even publications, such as NY Times, assume
that people are intelligent enough to read complex prose,
but too stupid to read complex graphics.
● Don't limit people by "dumbing" the data -- allow people to
use their abilities to get the most out of it.
● To clarify -- add detail (don't omit important detail; e.g., serif
fonts are more "detailed" than san serif fonts but are
actually easier to read). And Einstein once said that "an
explanation should be as simple as possible, but no
simpler".
● Above all else, show the data. Graphics is "intelligence
made visible"
● Data rich plots can show huge amounts of information from
many different perspectives: cause & effect, relationships,
parallels, etc. (VD-31: train schedule, VD-17: Chloroplethic
map, VD-41: Napoleon's campaign, EI-49: space junk)
● Plots need annotation to show data, data limitations,
authentication, and exceptions (VE-32: text of exceptions)
● Don't use graphics to decorate a few numbers
Graphical Integrity
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Graphics and Web Design Based on Edward Tufte's Principles
In addition to "lies, damn lies, and statistics", graphics can also
be used to deceive. For example, deceptive graphics may:
● Compare full time periods with smaller time periods (VD-
60: Nobel prizes, which compares 10 year time periods with
one 5 year period)
● Use a "lie factor" [= (size of graphic)/(size of data)] to
exaggerate differences or similarities
● Use area or volume representations instead of linear scales
to exaggerate differences. See VD-69: "Shrinking family
doctor" as an example of how to confuse people using 1
versus 2- and 3- dimensional size comparisons. Area and
volume representations fool people with the square/cube
law: an increase in linear size leads to a square of the
increase for areas and a cube of the increase for volumes.
● Fail to adjust for population growth or inflation in financial
graphs
● Make use of design variation to obscure or exaggerate data
variation (VD-61: exaggeration of OPEC prices)
● Exaggerate the vertical scale
● Show only a part of a cycle so that data from other parts of
the cycle cannot be used for proper comparison
Graphical errors may be more common today than in the past due
to the easy and frequent use of computers. Guidelines to help
insure graphical integrity include the following:
● Avoid chartjunk
● Don't dequantify: provide real data as accurately as is
reasonable. For example, ranking products as better or
worse according to one criteria when several factors are
involved is often not useful unless the magnitudes of the
differences are indicated.
● Don't exaggerate for visual effects, unless it is needed to
convey the information. Sometimes such exaggerations are
essential: for example, it is virtually impossible to show
both the size and the orbits of planets at the right scale on
the same chart. On the other hand, illustration VE-24:
"Exaggerated vertical Venus scale", shows such dramatic
mis-information, that one researcher called for the
formation of "a flat Venus society".
● Avoid dis-information: thick surrounding boxes and
underlined san serif text make reading more difficult
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Myspace layouts

Thứ Hai, 22 tháng 6, 2009

The Truth




Traûi qua con ñöôøng phaùt trieån cuûa lòch söû , töø tröôùc coâng nguyeân ñeán sau coâng nguyeân . Con ñöôøng ñi ñeán The Art cuõng laém nhieâu kheâ , Con ngöôøi ñaõ phaûi ñaáu tranh vôùi nhieàu vaán ñeà veà ñôøi soáng xaõ hoäi – ñôûi soáng tö töôûng ,taâm linh ñeå ñi ñeán moät gía trò töông ñoái naøo ñoù nhöng vaãn duy trì ñöôïc nhöõng neùt cô baõn vaø phaùt trieån cho ñeán taän ngaøy nay.
Töø thôøi sau coâng nguyeân , do aûnh höôøng cuûa cuoäc chieán tranh thaäp töï trinh , moät thôøi kyø xaõ hoäi mang ñaäm neùt toân gíao phaùt trieån raát maïnh ôû khu vöïc Ai Caäp , Hy laïp , Taây ban Nha ,roåi lan nhanh sang caùc Chaâu luïc khaùc baèng nhöõng chính saùch thuoäc ñòa phöông Taây , Hoaëc caùc cuoäc thaùm hieåm cuûa Columbos … Ñieàu naøy ñaõ mang theo nhöõng vaên hoùa vaø ngheä thuaät ,loái soáng phöông Taây aûnh höôûng ñeán taát caû caùc Chaâu luïc .
Nhöng taát caû ñieàu naøy ñeàu mang moät neùt chung laø taát caû moïi laõnh vöïc ñeàu aån chöùa moät neùt toân gíao tieàm aàn , hoaëc ñoâi neùt huyeàn bí thaàn linh trong moïi goùc caën cuûa cuoäc soáng . Coù phaûi chaêng ñoù laø con ñöôøng cô baûn ñeå daãn daét con ngöôøi ñi tìm chaân lyù cho mình vaø cho ngöôøi , hoaëc may cuõng laø höôùng daãn con ngöôøi ñi tìm moät chaân lyù soáng , moät nhaân sinh quan, Maø ñieàu naøy luoân quanh quaàn trong ta moât caùch kyø dieäu
Moät baèng chöùng cuï theà qua caùc taùc phaåm ngheä thuaät mang tính nhaân loaïi laø caùc Kyø Quan thieân nhieân – hoaëc nhaân taïo cuûa theá giôùi ñaõ minh hoïa raát saâu nhöõng ñöôøng neùt vaø maàu saéc toân gíao töø thôøi Tröôùc BC vaø sau BC.
Ñuùng khoâng thaät voâ côù khi maø caùc nhaø ngoân ngöõ hoïc ñaõ duøng töø Archbishop ñeå theå hieän quyeàn löïc cuûa moät chöùc saéc trong kytoâ gíao, Ñieàu nay theo caûm nghó cuûa toâi chaéc töø “ Archbishop” laø moät töø gheùp Arch _ vaø bishop , Trong ñoù töø Arch trong ngheä thuaät kieán truùc laø moät neàn taûng cô baûn xuyeân suoát trong caùc thôøi kyø thaåm myõ caáu truùc Phöông Taây – Caáu truùc Dome trong caùc nhaø thôø , ñeàn ñaøi toân gíao cuûa Hoài gíao ……. Hoaëc gæa
Nhö laø : Status of Easter Island – (10-16 century)- Chile
Pyramid at Chichen Itzaø- ( 800 AD )- Mexico
Machu Picchu (1460-1470)
Christ Redeemer ( 1931 ) Brazil
Alhamra ( 12 Century ) Spain
Stonhenge ( 3000 – 1600 BC ) United Kingdom
Effel Tower ( 1887-1889) France
Roman Colosseum ( 70 – 80 AD) Italy
Hagia Sophia ( 532- 537 AD) Turkey
Pettra ( 9 BC – 40 AD ) Jordan
Kremlin Quarter ( 1156 – 1850 ) Russia
Taj Mahal ( 1630 AD ) India
Angkor temple ( 12 Century ) Cambodia
Great wall of China ( 220 BC – 1368 – 1664 AD ) China
Maø Toâi ñaõ coá gaéng giôøi thieäu sô neùt ôû treân ôû kho taøng vaên hoùa kyø quan theá giôùi, cuõng mang ñaäm neùt treân. Chaéc coù moät moái lieân heä maät thieát giöõa con ngöôøi vaø thieân nhieân. Vôùi caûm nhaän treân , toâi seõ thöïc hieän moät Glideshow or photobuckshow ñeå laøm kyû nieäm cho söï suy ngaãm veà con ñöôøng tìm Chaân – Thieän – Myõ cuûa cuoäc ñôøi. Thaät caûm ôn Trôøi Ñaát vaø caùc con ngöôøi lòch söû ñaõ ñeå laïi moät kho taøng Vaên Hoùa –Ngheä thuaät – Con ngöôøi vaø Xaõ hoäi cho chuùng ta chieâm nghieäm veà cuoäc soáng

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The Architecture




EARLIEST ARCHITECT
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architect and Artchitecture : By Denis Sharp

Tracking the beginning of architecture from Neolithic times.
Artchitecture has allways been commonly regarded as one of the Arts . Incorparating as. It does the Arts of both painting and scalpture , it has indeed been called the “ Misstress” art, but unlike the other arts it alone is useful in the ordinary sence of the word , unlike pictures , poems, Scalpture and music, it protect us from the rigours of the environtment . In it , artistic expression and functional fitness are inextriccably mixed together .
Artchitecture is also recognized as having a socio- political functions , reinforcing the authority of those who seek to organize the society in which they live . For architecture represents an influent picture of the ideal world, drawing mankind along various paths of social development evolution . At its most basic , the term ‘ Artchitecture “ can also be used to descbibe any structured object . In this sence the catheral , the bicycle shed and even the pine tree , the ants’nest on the sea shell could all be apprecition of built form even if . We take the more convention in view and believe that artchitecture only correctly describe as building . Which does more than serve a basic function and delights the sences , such as the great temples and palaces and other habitable products of the famous designers . As the no- universially agreed definition – even the consise oxford English Dictionary , the rather vague definiting artchitecture as “ …. Think built , stucture styles of building , construction “ Artchitecture may be taken to mean any habitable building with a foem dictated by consideration beyond pure utility . The Earliest surviving examples of stone build architecture date back six thousand years but the roots of artchitecture go back further still . The tendency for mankind to organize its communities and habitations into meaningful shapes seem instinctive , like the drive to make pictures , to dance or to sing . Impermanent artchitecture probably flourished ( within the limits of it builders’ resourses ) . For many millenia until human resourses made it possiples to give artchitecture a more lastry and permanent expression . Artchitechologist recording evidence of neolithic settlements have uncovered evidence of fairly extensive village complexes . Lines of post holes preserved in the old layers of clay give , a clue to the kind of structure , these prehistoric peoples built . However , there is little evidence of the “artchitecture “ of these people in the sence of the aesthetic effect sought after and the means by which It was archived and while the traces are of intense acedemic interest , they supply us with little information as to how the building actually look . However , this ephemoral artchitecture is not entirely last to us beyond all conjecture . In order to imagine , come of its probably forms . We need only look at the contemporary building of cultures with story neolithic roots

( DNS) - HOP’S COLLECTIONS

Thứ Bảy, 20 tháng 6, 2009

The Praying of the mother

Today

I have thought about my elder brother .He has lived in The USA for 32 years also I has wanted giving him the picture " Your Mother " Presenting in the title " The praying of the Mother" Do you know ? The meanings of the The Mother.
M = Million things that the Mother has given it for you
O = Old! that all things she has lasted in her life therefore She has become Old
T = Tears . That is all her tears She has dropped in her lifetime for you
H = Heart . Oh! Heart . It is the golden heart for the people on the world
E = Eyes . It is her eyes that is allway looking after you on your way that you has lived
R = The Right . Oh! Right That is the matural things She has adviced you
In My country "The Mother 's day " is not on the May 13 . because All my people has been buddist That they has affected the thoungt of the feudal era for a long time . Therefore The Mother's day is offen on the celebrating day of the buddist It is a lunar day. It has been call " le Vu Lan " the middle day of the month of July . It has belonged the story of The buddism . It is a legent story . That has been told about the monks . He has been become a angel and then He had gone to the heal for viting her mother .In Vietnam That has been called " Muc Lien - Thanh De " . The story has told us in the meaning of the religion .
But in the day" may 13 " according to the weastern thoungt has been call the Mother's day .In the both ways . We has been happy because We have our mother . That all the mothers are allway praying the god save her sons or daughters having happy lifetime and the world has stopped the unreasonable war that has killed their sons
Oh! let us listening the sounds of the Mothers